Saturday, June 11, 2011

African ccTLDs

.dz - Algeria (English and French), requires a local presence, Price 1000 DA HT (~US$14.5). Some 3000 domains have been registered in the .dz namespace

.tn - Tunisia
Must be a resident. 80 DT (~US$60) set up cost, 60 DT (~US43) annual fee, 48 DT (~US$35) annual hosting/management fee.

.ma - Morocco
Has undergone reforms and relatively well managed ccTLD registry. Morocco's Genious Communications is an ICANN accredited Registrar. Some 30,000 domain names are currently registered in the .ma namespace.

.ly - Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
US$50 per year. Open.
Has proved quite popular on the world wide web. There were complaints that the nation's registry had reserved some three and four letter domains for the benefit of Libyans within Libya. It would be interesting to watch how the ccTLD registry will managed in the Post Gaddafi Libya. Libyan Spider Registrar is a major player in the .LY domain namespace.

.eg - Egypt
Form is at Egyptian Universities Network, name servers must be physically located in Egypt, name must be related to the entity name and not be generic, registration is free. Still has some archaic domain name registration procedures. The management of .EG domains might undergo some reforms in post Mubarak Egypt soon after the previous government pulled the plug on the internet.

.mr - Mauritania
Must be a resident. Seems to be available at no cost.

.ml - Mali
URL not fully functional. Potential bandwidth problem.

.sd - Sudan
2006: Sudan Internet Society "SIS" manages and maintains the ccTLD. Various options are available, prices range from $50 - $100 per annum. Appears to be healthy.

.ss South Sudan
Yet to be launched. To be the ccTLD domain for South Sudan and is expected to be popular with internet users. It's not known whether the registry willa adopt the Registry/Registrar model; also not known with the ccTLD namespace will be opened or restricted.

.ne - Niger
Not clear from the URL how to register a new domain. See here.

.td - Chad
It's likely the .TD ccTLD namespace is managed by the government of Chad's Ministry of Telecommunications. More info to be Updated on thsi.

.sn - Senegal
It must be sent by postal mail, signed by the administrative person in charge and stamp of the organisation. Seems to be no charge at this time.

.er - Eritrea
URL coming soon. Meantime see here.

.cv - Cap Verde
No URL listed.

.bf - Burkina Faso
Probably managed by the government's Ministry of telecommunications.

.et - Ethiopia
One of the toughest and most expensive ccTLD Domain names in Africa. Registration only open to companies based in Ethiopia.

.dj - Djibouti
Not all very clear yet.

.gm - Gambia
Administration updated in 2001. One-time registration fee of US$75. relatively well managed.

.ng - Nigeria
Registrations must be from organizations with a real presence in the country and with a demonstrable intent to use the domain name on a regular basis on the internet. I.e. vanity, placemark, ... name registration is not appropriate. For trademark registration, see the trademark office.

.cm - Cameroon
Registration dominated by foreign registrars who have capitalized on the ccTLD's closeness to .com hence exploiting users' typos. In 2006, the ccTLD was wildcarded in an investment scam that the Cameroonian government struck with a domain investor. Several domains have been registered in the .CM namespace, mainly by typosquatters and cybercriminals taking advantage of users typos. Recently, the .CM domain was classified as the riskiest domain namespace by McAfee with 36.7% of domains in the .CM posing a security risk to web users. The number of registrations should be relatively high although stats have never been given by the ccTLD operator.

.gn - Guinea
One of the most user unfriendly domain namespaces in Africa. managed by randy Bush's PSG. Less than 10 domains registered in the ccTLD namespace.

.bj - Benin

.so - Somalia
The ccTLD namespace was revived after ICANN redelegated the ccTLD to Somalia's Transitional Federal Government's Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications in a questionable deal. The Ministry appointed Japan's GMO Registry as its technical operator. The domain is managed according to Japanese laws and registrations are open to everyone in the world. Domains are relatively cheap, rangine from $20-$28. Has faced vehement opposition from sections of the Somali community who believe the .SO ccTLD registry was redelegated ina corrupt deal.

.gh - Ghana
Company should be registered in Ghana. US$50 per year. The ccTLD registry has been undergoing spome reforms in theb last year.

.tg - Togo
Appears well supported yet very overpriced at US$270 for two years.

.ci - Côte d'Ivoire - Web enabled 2001 - not very clear on process.

.sl - Sierra Leone

.cf - Central African Republic

.lr - Liberia
No URL listed. One host carrying this domain in Jan 2000. One of the ccTLD registries managed by randy Bush's PSG. not very well managed.

.gq - Equatorial Guinea
Text email application form linked, unclear on cost 10,000 XAF (~US$18) is mentioned for monthly as is 150,000 XAF (~US$270).

.cd - Congo, Democratic Republic
Localised (from Network Startup Resource Center to Swiss based technology under ownership Interpoint SARL, see more at in June 2001. Interesting model for all CD (Compact Disk) related business. Operating as a registry so prices are set by global market and vary by registrar.

.ke - Kenya
The .KE ccTLD is operated by KENIC a not for profit organization with its members drawn from Private and Public sectors of the Kenyan Internet community. KENIC has adopted a registry/registrar model with the registrars drawn from Kenyan based companies. Domain registration pricing is per annum at Kshs 2320 (~US$30). Registrations are closed to residents in Kenya. One of the more successful registries in Africa along with South Africa's .za. Over 18,000 domains have been registered in the .ke namespace.

.ug - Uganda
The domain is administered by Charles Musisi under the following guiding policies: US$50.00 per annum, must be operating in Uganda, must be used within 3 months: Top Level Domain-ug, Second Level -ac(academic), co (corporate),or (organisation),go (government body).

.cg - Congo, Republic of
Managed by a Belgian Company DNSAfrica operating from France. Company has been in a redelegation battle with both Rwanda and the Congo Republic.

.ga - Gabon
No URL listed.

.st - Sao Tome and Principe
Also called the 'site' domain - excellent commercial usage!

.tz - Tanzania
Registrations must be from organizations with a real presence in the country and with a demonstrable intent to use the domain name on a regular basis on the internet. Free and managed by Randy Bush.

.rw - Rwanda Moved from US based Network Startup Resource Center to NIC Congo - Interpoint SARL in 1999. Price remained free for citizens/lawful residents of Rwanda and for foreign entities: First Year 550 Swiss Francs, Next Year 350 Swiss Francs. Currently managed by DNSAfrica and has been  engaged in a 6 year redelegation battle with the internet stakeholders in Rwanda. Domains are free to citizens of Rwanda but foreigners, even those operating in Rwanda, must pay a fee of around $200 to acquire .RW domains.

.bi - Burundi
This was initially managed by US based Network Startup Resource Center. In mid 2002 it moved local under the leadership of Victor Ciza, with the cost changing to 100 Euros per two years. I encourage Registrars to contact Victor for special pricing!

.ao - Angola Appears that first domain costs US$300.00 per annum, and additional names at US$450.00 per annum. Only third levels available below CO.AO - For commercial institutions, seated in Angola; ED.AO - For educational institutions, seated in Angola; GV.AO - For governamental institutions, seated in Angola; IT.AO - For international institutions, seated outside Angola; OG.AO - For any other organisations, seated in Angola; PB.AO - Sub-Domain for publishing, seated in Angola;

.zm - Zambia
US$100 for 2 years. Enjoys a monopoly in domain name registrations. Not very well managed. The ccTLD registry has been accused by registrants of engaging in corrupt practices including changing the date of domain  name registration.

.sc - Seychelles

.mw - Malawi
This was a long political story that had impact on the Internet industry in Malawi Seems to have been stabilised by redelegation to Malawi Sustainable Development Network Programme in October 2002. Was once engaged in a redelegation battle against a British South African businessman.
The current pricing is US$100 registration and $50 renewal per annum. Register at, a site with well communicated detail.

.mz - Mozambique
More information to be added later.

.km - Comoros
More inormation to be added laterr on Komoros ccTLD.

.mg - Madagascar

.yt - Mayotte

.sh - St. Helena
Same operator as Ascension Island. £60 Year 1, £30/yr thereafter. Residents (there are very few) are not charged.

.zw - Zimbabwe

.na - Namibia   Relatively well managed

.bw - Botswana
Managed by Botswana Telecommunications Corporation, BTC. Policy paper on reforming the ccTLD recently released.

.mu - Mauritius
This is fully functional and registrations are growing.

.re - Reunion Island

.za - South Africa
This tld used to account for over 80% of domains registered in the region. It is highly structured and commercial domains can be registered at  Over 670,000 domains have been registered in the namespace alone.

.sz - Swaziland
Established through the Swaziland ISPA in Oct 2005. Strictly restricted to the Citizens of Swaziland.

.ls - Lesotho
No URL listed for .ls. See for available at M200 per year (Lesotho Malotis worth in total ~US$30)